K is for Kings

  • 1050 – 586 BC
  • Books: 10 Southern prophets, 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings, 1-2 Chronicles, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, 3 Northern prophets
  • Israel continues to disobey God
    • Rejects God as their king; wants to be like the other nations
    • Kings continuously trust in other humans instead of God; evidence by paying tribute
    • Israel consistently worships idols
    • Israel ends up worse than other nations
  • God continues to show grace and mercy
    • God’s presence in temple
    • God does not destroy immediately; gives Israel hundreds of years to repent (prophet Ahijah to Israel, 200 yrs; Isaiah to Judah, 100-150 yrs)
    • Sends prophets to warn Israel and to ask them to return to Him
    • God shows grace to David though he commits murder and adultery
    • God forgives Manasseh though he has committed abominations against God
  • God continues to fulfill His promises
    • Davidic covenant (2 Sam 7)
      • Unconditional covenant
      • Son on the throne forever
      • Son will have everlasting kingdom
      • Son will build temple
      • Son will call God Father and God call him Son
    • God promises a righteous king
      • God’s chosen line in David and southern kingdom (Jer 23:1-8)
      • Ruler will be ancient of days (Micah 5)
      • King will be called Wonderful Counselor, etc, etc and will have government on his shoulders (Isaiah 9)
      • King will be righteous (Jer 23:5)
      • King will come from Bethlehem (Micah)
      • King will open eyes of blind and ears of deaf (Isaiah)
      • Servant will suffer (Isaiah 53)
    • God will make a new covenant with Israel (Jeremiah 31)
  • United Monarcy (1050-930)
    • Saul
      • Man’s choice
        • Not from God’s line: tribe of Benjamin vs. tribe of Judah
        • People choose Saul after judging from external appearances
        • Disobeys God – does not wait for Samuel, consults a medium
    • David
      • God’s choice
        • Anointed by Samuel; from tribe of Judah
        • Youngest of brothers – God judges by the heart
        • Faithful king
        • Establishes Jerusalem as capital
        • Given grace despite sin
        • Davidic promises
    • Solomon
      • Son of David
      • Builds temple for God
      • Very wise
      • Time of prosperity
      • Commits idolatry because of his many wives
      • Kingdom will be torn from his son as a result
  • Northern Kingdom; Israel/Samaria (930-722)
    • Jeroboam (930-909)
      • 1st king of North; given 10 tribes
      • Makes 2 golden calves in Dan and Bethel
      • Establishes non-Levites as priests
      • Builds altars on high places for idol worship
    • Omri (885-874)
      • Establishes Samaria as capital of Israel
      • Does evil in eyes of the Lord
    • Ahab (874-853)
      • One of the worst kings
      • Marries Jezebel, who kills God’s prophets
      • Establishes Baal worship
    • Jehu (841-814)
      • Kills sons of Ahab and Jezebel
      • Kills priests of Baal
      • Does not remove golden calves or idol worship
    • Jeroboam II (793-753)
      • Time of prosperity but great injustice
      • Does evil in eyes of Lord – does not remove idol worship or golden calves
      • Prophets Hosea, Amos sent
    • Pekah (752-732)
      • Attacks Judah (king Ahaz)
      • Allies with Aram
      • Attacked by Assyria
      • Does evil in eyes of Lord
    • Hoshea (732-722)
      • Last king of northern kingdom
      • Does evil in the eyes of the Lord
      • Vassal of Assyria
      • Rebels; seeks help from Egypt
      • Israel defeated by Assyria (Shalmanesar V) and exiled in 722 BC
      • Population shifting by Sargon II
    • Prophets
      • Hosea (8th C)
        • Sent to Jeroboam II during time of prosperity and injustice
        • Israel playing the harlot by her idolatry
        • Marries Gomer the prostitute
        • 3 children
          • Jezreel – to remind Israel of their past
          • Lo-ruammah – no compassion (God will not continue to have compassion)
          • Lo-ammi – not my people
      • Amos (8th C)
        • Sent to Jeroboam II during time of prosperity and injustice
        • Israel needs to stop abusing poor, stop using dishonest scales, stop accepting bribes
      • Jonah (8th C)
        • Sent to Nineveh
        • More concerned for objects than people
        • God is compassionate to all
      • Elijah
        • Sent to Ahab and Ahaziah
        • Mt Carmel showdown against Baal to reveal true God
      • Elisha
        • Sent to Jehoram and Jehu
  • Southern Kingdom; Judah (930-586)
    • Rehoboam (930-913)
      • Son of Solomon
      • Chooses to be cruel to be people instead of kind
      • Does evil in eyes of Lord
      • Worshipped idols (high places and Asherah)
      • Cult prostitutes
    • Asa (910-869)
      • Abolishes cult prostitutes
      • Destroys foreign altars and Asherah poles
      • Trusts in God when attacked by Cushites
      • Later doesn’t trust God
        • seeks physicians instead of praying to God
        • pays tribute to Aram rather than seeking God
    • Jehoshaphat (872-848)
      • Does good in eyes of the Lord
      • Trusts God (esp. in battle vs Moab and Ammon)
      • Sends Levites to teach law in cities of Judah
      • Removes high places
      • Institutes reforms
    • Uzziah (792-740)
      • Initially trusts God
      • Later falls victim to pride – tries to burn incense on altar, which only a priest could do
      • God strikes him with leprosy
    • Ahaz (735-715)
      • Evil king; does evil in eyes of God
      • Idol worship
      • Child sacrifice
      • Refuses to trust God; instead pays tribute to Assyria
      • Closes temple
    • Hezekiah (729-686)
      • Does good in eyes of Lord
      • Reopens temple and cleanses it
      • Restores Passover and worship
      • Removes high places and idol worship
      • Trusts God in battle against Assyrians
    • Manasseh (696-642)
      • Worst king of Judah
      • Idol worship in God’s temple
      • Baal worship and Asherah poles
      • Child sacrifice
      • Witchcraft, divinations, mediums
      • Judah worse than surrounding nations
      • Incites God’s judgment
      • Later repents after being taken to Babylon
    • Josiah (640-609)
      • Best king of Judah/Israel
      • Religious reforms in 628BC – destroys high places; removes idol worship
      • Finds law (622);
      • Covenant renewal
      • Celebrates Passover
      • Removes witchcraft and mediums; destroys altar in Bethel (Samaria)
    • Jehoiakim (608-598)
      • Evil in eyes of Lord
      • Vassal of Egypt
      • Chooses not to listen to Jeremiah (burns scroll); kills Uriah the prophet
      • 605 BC – Nebuchadnezzar defeats Egypt, 1st deportation from Judah (including Daniel)
    • Jehoichin (598-597)
      • Son of Jehoiakim
      • Evil in eyes of Lord
      • 597 – 2nd deportation to Babylon, incl Ezekiel and Jehoiachin
    • Zedekiah (597-586)
      • Commits evil in eyes of the Lord
      • Vassal of Babylon
      • Rebels; chooses not to trust the Lord
      • Jerusalem taken in 586 BC
      • Zedekiah blinded and taken to Babylon
    • Prophets
      • Isaiah (8th C)
        • Sent to Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah
        • Israel has rebelled against God – primarily idolatry
        • Isaiah sent to preach to blind and deaf (like their idols) – God will harden Israel further through his message
        • Israel will be exiled (Isa 5)
        • Hope
          • Remnant remaining (Isa 11)
          • Righteous king/servant
            • from Judah (Isa 11)
            • will deliver Israel (Isa 9)
            • will open eyes of blind (Is 42:7)
            • will justify the many by bearing their sins (Isa 53)
            • will be a light to nations (Isa 42:6)
            • will bring hope to Gentiles (Isa 42)
            • Nations will come to worship God in Jerusalem (Isa 2:1-4)
      • Micah (8th C)
        • Sent to Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah
        • Judgment against Samaria
        • Judgment against Judah for their sins
          • Injustice, bribery, false scales, deception, bloodshed
          • God wants people to do justice, love mercy, walk humbly with Him but they do not
          • Hope:
            • Small remnant will remain
            • God will raise up a ruler from Bethlehem
      • Jeremiah (7th C; 627-586)
        • Sent to Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoichin, Zedekiah
        • Judgment/despair
          • Exposes Israel’s sins (Jer 1-20)
            • Idolatry
            • Worship other gods
            • Broken God’s covenant
            • People blind and deaf
            • Human heart is engraved with sin (Jer 17:1)
            • Warns of curses from Mosaic covenant (Jer 11:3)
            • Impending judgment (Jer 15:3, 16:4)
            • Israel will become a curse/horror to other nations

            Hope

            • Exile will only last 70 years
            • God will raise up a righteous king of David’s line (Jer 23:1-8); he will rule in righteousness (Jer 23:5)
            • New covenant (Jer 31:31-37)
              • Unconditional covenant
              • God will write His law on people’s hearts
              • God will be Israel’s God and they His people
              • Each person will know the Lord
              • God will forgive sin!
                • The new covenant promises forgiveness of sin!
                • It has not been offered thus far!
                • It has not been offered under the Mosaic Law.
                • This is remarkable! It sanctions forgiveness. The promise given is for all sins.
    • Habakkuk (7th C)
      • God will send Babylonians to judge Israel
    • Joel (6th C)
      • Locusts are coming from north (possibly symbolism of Babylonian army)
      • Return to the Lord and He might relent
      • God will restore; He will pour out His spirit
    • Nahum (7th C)
      • Nineveh will be destroyed
      • Zephaniah (7th C)
        • Sent to Josiah
        • Judgment coming against Judah for their idolatry and turning from God
        • Hope: God will leave a remnant; will restore after judgment

Everyone who knows the Bible knows that King David was a great man.

And yet everyone familiar with the Bible will also recognize that David did a lot of not-so-great things. Of course, there was the sin with Bathsheba, the murder of her husband Uriah, and the subsequent cover-up. That was not exactly delighting in the law of the Lord (Psalm 1:2). But there was also the ill-advised census motivated by David’s pride, not to mention a series of lessons in how not to manage your household well. For being a man after God’s own heart (Acts 13:22), David managed to follow his own heart quite a bit.

So with all these flaws, what made David great? One could easily mention David’s courage, his loyalty, his faith, his success as a leader, musician, and warrior. But he was great in other lesser-known ways as well. In particular, David was a great man because he was willing to overlook others’ sin but unwilling to overlook his own. David knew how to forgive, and he knew how to repent too. He never blamed others for his mistakes.

David was a man after God’s own heart because he hated sin but loved to forgive it.

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